Industrial Engineering is System Efficiency Engineering and Human Effort Engineering. - Narayana Rao.
TAYLOR'S INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING - PROF. DIEMER
Hugo Diemer defined or explained Industrial Engineering in chapter I in his book published in 1910.
FACTORY ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION BY HUGO DIEMER, M.E.
Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylvania State College; Consulting Industrial Engineer
McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, NEW YORK
Contribution of F.W. Taylor to Industrial Engineering
TAYLOR'S INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING - Narayana Rao
Taylor wrote in the "Piece Rate" paper that to increase productivity, systematizing that is systematically studying and improving all of the small details in the running of each shop, such as the care of belting, the proper shape for cutting tools, and the dressing, grinding, and issuing tool, oiling machines, issuing orders for work, obtaining accurate labor and material returns, and a host of other minor methods and processes has to be done. Then only on the basis of productivity improvement estimates, piece rates that provide motivation or incentive to operators to participate in the high productivity redesigned process can be given.
Incentives are not increasing the productivity. Productivity science and engineering improve productivity. Incentives are part of productivity management, where by operators are recruited and trained to work in high productivity processes.
Important points in "Notes on Belting"
In using belting so as to obtain the greatest economy and the most satisfactory results, the following rules should be. observed :
It is the writer's judgment that belts should be made heavier and run more slowly than theory and accepted rules would indicate, not only for the sake of reducing the belt bill in the long run, but even more to avoid the frequent interruptions to manufacture. In figuring the total expense of belting, and the manufacturing cost chargeable to this account, I think that most careful observers soon come to the conclusion that by far the largest item in this account is the time lost on the machines while belts are being replaced and repaired.
The most interesting and important fact noticeable is the superiority of the shifting to the cone belts in every respect except first cost. The life of the shifting belts will be three times that of the cone. The total cost of the shifting belts per year of service is less than that of the cone. After 8.8 years of life the total cost of maintenance and repairs of the shifting belts amounts to only 30.4% of the original cost, while with the cone belts the maintenance and repairs through a life of 6.7 years amounts to one and one-half times the first cost.
Frederick Taylor's Elementary Rate-fixing Department (Industrial Engineering Department).
From the paper, Piece Rate System, 1895
The advantages of this system of management (Taylor's Piece Rate System) are :
The manufactures are produced cheaper under it.
The system is rapid in attaining the maximum productivity of each machine and man
The writer has endeavored in the following pages to describe the system of management introduced by him in the works of the Midvale Steel Company, of Philadelphia, which has been employed by them during the past ten years with the most satisfactory results.
The system consists of a principal element: An elementary rate-fixing department (productivity department).
Elementary rate-fixing differs from other methods of making piece-work prices in that a careful study is made of the time required to do each of the many elementary operations into which the manufacturing of an establishment may be analyzed or divided. These elementary operations are then classified, recorded, and indexed.
The remedy for this trouble lies in the establishment in every factory of a proper rate-fixing department ; a department which shall have equal dignity and command equal respect with the engineering and managing departments, which shall be organized and conducted in
an equally scientific and practical manner.
Yet this elementary system of fixing rates has been in successful operation for the past ten years, on work complicated in its nature and covering almost as wide a range of variety as any manufacturing that the writer knows of. In 1883, while foreman of the machine shop of the Midvale Steel Company of Philadelphia, it occurred to the writer that it was simpler to time each of the elements of the various kinds of work done in the place, and then find the quickest time in which each job could be done, by summing up the total times of its component parts, than it was to search through the records of former jobs and guess at the proper price. After practising this method of rate-fixing himself for about a year as well as circumstances would permit, it became evident that the system was a success. The writer then established the rate-fixing department, which has given out piece-work prices in the place ever since.
This department far more than paid for itself from the very start ; but it was several years before the full benefits of the system were felt, owing to the fact that the best methods of making and recording time observations of work done by the men, as well as of determining the maximum capacity of each of the machines in the place, and of making working-tables and time-tables, were not at first adopted.
Before the best results were finally attained in the case of work done by metal-cutting tools, such as lathes, planers, boring mills, etc., a long and expensive series of experiments was made, to determine, formulate, and finally practically apply to each machine the law governing the proper cutting speed of tools, namely, the effect on the cutting speed of altering any one of the following variables : the shape of the tool (i.e., lip angle, clearance angle, and the line of the cutting edge), the duration of the cut, the quality or hardness of the metal being cut, the depth of the cut, and the thickness of the feed or shaving
It is the writer’s opinion that a more complicated and difficult piece of rate-fixing could not be found than that of determining the proper price for doing all kinds of machine work on miscellaneous steel and iron castings and forgings, which vary in their chemical composition from the softest iron to the hardest tool steel. Yet this problem was solved through the rate-fixing department and the “ differential rate,” with the final result of completely harmonizing the men and the management, in place of the constant war that existed under the old system. At the same time the quality of the work was improved and the output of the machinery and the men was doubled, and in many cases trebled. At the start there was naturally great opposition to the rate-fixing department, particularly to the man who was taking time observations of the various elements of the work ; but when the men found that the rates were fixed without regard to the records of the quickest time in which they had actually done each job, and that the knowledge of the department was more accurate than their own, the motive for hanging back or “ soldiering ” on this work ceased, and with it the greatest cause for antagonism and war between the men and the management
The accurate knowledge of the quickest time in which work can be done, obtained by the rate-fixing department and accepted by the men as standard, is the greatest and most important step toward obtaining the maximum output of the establishment.
Of the two devices proposed for increasing the output of a shop, the differential rate and the scientific rate-fixing department, the scientific rate-fixing department is by far the more important. The differential rate is invaluable at the start as a means of convincing men that the management is in earnest in its intention of paying a premium for hard work, and it at all times furnishes the best means of maintaining the top notch of production; but when, through its application, the men and the management have come to appreciate the mutual benefit of harmonious cooperation and respect for each other’s rights, it ceases to be an absolute necessity. On the other hand, the rate-fixing department, for an establishment doing a large variety of work, becomes absolutely indispensable. The longer it is in operation the more necessary it becomes.
Practically, the greatest need felt in an establishment wishing to start a rate-fixing department is the lack of data as to the proper rate of speed at which work should be done.
There are hundreds of operations which are common to most large establishments ; yet each concern studies the speed problem for itself, and days of labor are wasted in what should be settled once for all and recorded in a form which is available to all manufacturers.
68. What is needed is a hand-book on the speed with which work can be done, similar to the elementary engineering hand-books. And the writer ventures to predict that such a book will, before long, be forthcoming. Such a book should describe the best method of making, recording, tabulating, and indexing time-observations, since much time and effort are wasted by the adoption of inferior methods (Taylor himself created the engineering knowledge to determine cutting speeds, feeds and depth of cut of machine tools).
The benefits of elementary rate-fixing including many indirect results.
The careful study of the capabilities of the machines and the analysis of the speeds at which they must run, before differential rates can be fixed which will insure their maximum output, almost invariably result in first indicating and then correcting the defects in their design and in the method of running and caring for them.
In the case of the Midvale Steel Company the machine shop was equipped with standard tools furnished by the best makers, and the study of these machines, such as lathes, planers, boring mills, etc., which was made in fixing rates, developed the fact that they were none of them designed and speeded so as to cut steel to the best advantage. As a result, this company has demanded alterations from the standard in almost every machine which they have bought during the past eight years. They have themselves been obliged to superintend the design of many special tools which would not have been thought of had it not been for elementary rate-fixing.
But what is perhaps of more importance still, the rate-fixing department has shown the necessity of carefully systematizing all of the small details in the running of each shop, such as the care of belting, the proper shape for cutting tools, and the dressing, grinding, and issuing sairfe, oiling machines, issuing orders for work, obtaining accurate labor and material returns, and a host of other minor methods and processes. These details, which are usually regarded as of comparatively small importance, and many of which are left to the individual judgment of the foreman and workmen, are shown by the rate-fixing department to be of paramount importance in obtaining the maximum output, and to require the most careful and systematic study and attention in order to insure uniformity and a fair and equal chance for each workman. Without this preliminary study and systematizing of details it is impossible to apply successfully the differential rate in most establishments.
No system of management, however good, should be applied in a wooden way. The proper personal relations should always be maintained between the employers and men; and even the prejudices of the workmen should be considered in dealing with ]them.
Above all it is desirable that men should be talked to on their own level by those who are over them.
Each man should be encouraged to discuss any trouble which he may have, either in the works or outside, with those over him. Men would far rather even be blamed by their bosses, especially if the “ tearing out ” has a touch of human nature and feeling in it, than to be passed by day after day without a word and with no more notice than if they were part of the machinery.
The opportunity which each man should have of airing his mind freely and having it out with his employers, is a safety-valve ; and if the superintendents are reasonable men, and listen to and treat with respect what their men have to say, there is absolutely no reason for labor unions and strikes.
Source: Frederick Taylor's Piece Rate System
Shop Management was presented by Taylor to ASME in 1905. In the paper, many activities of industrial engineering are described and the system engineering and human effort engineering components become visible in it. As it is a big essay by itself it is presented as a separate article.
Industrial Engineering Described in Shop Management by F.W. Taylorhttps://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2019/06/industrial-engineering-described-in.html
Taylor developed his shop management and productivity improvement theories initially in machine shops and later extended to other industrial activities. In the machine shop, improving machine work is important and Taylor devoted considerable attention to machine work and improvement of machines, tools and accessories to increase productivity of machine. He made a presentation his experiments conducted over a period of 26 on machine tools and machining in ASME conference of 1906. It is an elaborate work on machine work study. The summary of Taylor's machine work study is presented in a separate article.
Machine Work Study by Taylor - Art of Metal Cutting - 1906/7 - Important Pointshttps://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2019/06/taylor-art-of-metal-cutting-important.html
Importance of System for Efficiency - F.W. Taylor
The system developed, implemented and advocated by Taylor is based on four principles of scientific management.
Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana RaoPresentation at 2017 Annual IISE Conference at Pittsburgh, USA
The industrial engineering related issues described by F.W. Taylor in the book "Scientific Management" are covered in a separate article.
Industrial Engineering and Productivity Improvement Described in Scientific Management by F.W. Taylor
This article is included in
July - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan
Ideas and thoughts fundamental to industrial engineering