Tuesday, March 20, 2012

TPS - Toyota Industrial Engineering - The Story

TPS - the ancestors

Sakichi Toyoda - Toyoda Loom Works -  invented an automatic power loom, Jikoda (autonomous automation), 5 Whys

Kiichiro Toyoda - dreamed of branching into automobiles, started in 1933.
Frustrated by difficulties in engine casting, begins process study.
1936 - creates Kaizen improvement teams
Resigned 1948 due to poor sales.

Department of War TWI program -
1950 - Deming visits Japan. at request of Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers, June-August 1950, trains 100s of engineers, managers and scholars in statistical process control and quality.

JUSE - > Genichi Taguchi - consults with Toyota

In 1957 cousin Eiji Toyoda takes over. Visits Ford. Implements Ford mass production standards.

Frederick Taylor's PSM -> Shigeo Shingo

Toyota Production System

Many folks may think that Japan achieved market dominance through robots, or being workaholics. Not so.

Taiichii Ohno - graduated from Nagoya Technical High School, joined Toyota in 1943 -
Shigeo Shingo - late 50s to 60s - consulting with Toyota
Eiji Toyoda..
Started in 1948 - based on work of Deming

muri - inconsistency
mura - overburden
muda - waste

design out mura - be able to meet required results smoothly - Tai Chi
decrease muri - increase flexibility without stress - Yoga
eliminate muda - eliminate waste - Shaolin Kung-Fu
Perfection is achieved, not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to remove. - Saint-Exupery

Unable to eliminate bottlenecks in production
EOQ - Economic Lot Size - calculation of best use of line, production must be high enough to meet demand for different models

different model = different parts, different dies, different procedures, different tools

high downtime for line changeover = high economic lot size
high economic lot size = high stock  of parts inventory
high stock of inventory = investment of $$$, land costs in Japan are expensive, high cost for big warranty
lesser diversity of models

First - rework factory and models to make use of standard parts, tools, and processes.

Next goal is SMED
biggest component of changeover is die exchange
examine process -
die weighs many tons
use crane to remove old and install new
requires minute measurement to put into place
done by hand and by eye
tested by making test stampings, wasting time and resources
process took 12 hours to 3 days

improve
invest in precision measurement devices
record necessary measurements for each die
install according to measurements rather than by hand and eye - changeover to 90 minutes

FRS - fixed repeating schedule
die changes in standard sequence
scheduling tool changeovers as the new product moved through factory
scheduling use of cranes

SMED achieved
Single Minute Exchange of Die
<10 minutes to change die.
EOQ = 1 vehicle.
Just in time manufacturing

intangible benefits
stockless production
reduction of process footprint = free floor space
productivity increased
ability to changeover more
elimination of defects
improved quality of each product
improved quality from
increased safety due to simpler setup
simplified housekeeping
lower expense of setup
operator preferred = better worker satisfaction
lower skill requirements
elimination of waste
goods are not lost due to deterioration in inventory
new attitudes on work process among staff

Source:
TPS by Ken Harris
http://knol.google.com/k/ken-harris/tps/6p1yn013rxws/2

Posted under creative commons 3.0 attribution license

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