Sunday, March 2, 2014

Lean Systems Industrial Engineering



LEAN SYSTEMS INDUSTRIAL  ENGINEERING


The profession of industrial engineering originated during the days of craft production, but  grew up and flourished with the mass production system. But Taiichi Ohno, at Toyota Motors creatively applied industrial engineering tools in giving birth to lean production systems that offer products with better quality and lower cost compared to mass production systems. This development now gave birth to lean systems industrial engineering specialty in industrial engineering.


The Lean Systems Industrial Engineer (LSIE), is  an industrial engineering expert with knowledge of lean system components and with special inputs in increasing the efficiency further or eliminate waste further from lean systems. Industrial engineering is committed to continuous improvement of productivity and lean systems are also committed continuous improvement as a system specified feature.

In the drive to remove further waste from lean systems, the lean industrial engineer’s tool box includes tools:
– that examine and balance the mixed model final assembly lines.
– that examine the design of subassembly cells and make them more efficient.
– that examine the design of manufacturing cells to make them more efficient.
– study and participate in the design and development of  quick change work holders and cutting tool holders for the manufacturing cells.
– study and improve the defect prevention devices and defect minimization procedures.
- Study and improve productivity of  in-line inspection devices.
– that study and improve  safety devices, walk away switches, and automatic unload mechanisms.
– that facilitate development of one piece flow processes for operations like painting and heat treatment and inspection.
– study and participate in the development of special  machine tools for true lean manufacturing cells.
- that implement efficiency methods in throughout the supply chain


All the tasks of lean system industrial engineer require engineering, industrial engineering and management knowledge coupled with lots of creativity and innovation to  suggest design changes to assembly lines, subassembly lines,  machine tools for the cells with narrow footprints, rapid tool and work holder exchanges , in-process inspection, rapid unload and load for one-piece flow, good ergonomic and safety features and planning and controlling one-piece flow operation built around standard work.

Lean System Special Features


Designing the system for customer satisfaction for giving planned value to the organization
Pull based system for rapid delivery
Flow based flexible system for one piece flow based on demand - Low Inventory
Target cost management to get planned profit
Commitment to continuous improvement
Respect for people by having autonomous work groups

Industrial Engineering Tools Applied


Standardization of Processes and Working Conditions
Process and Operation Analysis (Method Study or Methods Efficiency Study or Engineering)
Motion Study and Principles of Motion Economy (5S)
Time Study
Value Engineering
Operations Research
Statistical Methods to Control Variation
Engineering Economics
Ergonomics
Simulation

New Ideas and Tools in Lean Systems


Just in Time Production - Change in Inventory Control Practices
Just in Time Supply
Kanban Communication System - Change in Production Planning and Control Procedure
Special Focus on Seven Wastes
Zero Defect Movement
Total Quality Control (Inspection by production persons only - no additional inspector)
Total Productive Maintenance (Involving production operators significantly in preventive maintenance)
Aggressive Kaizen (Team leaders responsible for monthly improvement in processes)
Visual Communication (Standard Work Sheets, Daily Targets and Production, and Problems)
Value Stream Mapping to identify and remove obstructions to flow
SMED (due to application of methods study)
U-share layouts

Yamashina rightly says Total Industrial Engineering, Total Quality Management, and Total Productive Maintenance as 3 pillars of World Class Manufacturing.
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When Frederick Taylor, Frank Gilbreth and Harrington Emerson were developing the industrial engineering discipline there was craft production of automobiles.


Henry Ford is being credited with mass production and industrial engineering played its parts.

Eiji Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno are given the credit for development of lean systems. Ohno gives credit to industrial engineering. IE has its role to play in lean systems to further improve efficiency and eliminate waste.



Toyota Style Industrial Engineering - Taiichi Ohno

Lean Engineering Hardcover – August 15, 2013
by Don T. Phillips (Author) , J.T. Black (Author)
Hardcover: 670 pages
Publisher: Virtualbookworm.com Publishing (August 15, 2013)
http://www.amazon.com/Lean-Engineering-Don-T-Phillips/dp/1621373436

Introduction to Lean Engineering
Don T. Phillips J. T. Black
Pearson Education, Limited, 30-Jan-2012 - 500 pages
http://books.google.co.in/books/about/Introduction_to_Lean_Engineering.html?id=eT51PQAACAAJ


The profession of Industrial Engineering has always been tied to the world of manufacturing and the design of factories that produce the consumer and producer goods that we all use.

Before there were factories, craftsmen made tools, wagons, weapons, wheels and horseshoes on a one-of-a-kind basis.   As we moved into the age of iron and steel, power to metal-cutting machines was provided and this produced the first factories with water powered machine tools (circa.1860).  This first factory design became known as the job shop or the American Armory System to the historian, and it realized  an economy of collected manufacturing processes under one roof. Taylor developed his scientific management and industrial engineering ideas during craft production and early factory production period.

The second factory design was known as the Ford production system with its moving assembly line and standardization of measurements leading to truly interchangeable parts. The factory design was called the flow shop.  Around this time (1913) industrial engineers graduates (IEs) emerged out of mechanical engineering departments to measure work and devise better ways to organize and operate the factory. Over time, the flow shop and job shop merged to create the mass production system with its division of labor, producing large volumes at low unit costs.  This led to economies of scale.

In the late 1970s a third factory design evolved based on the work of Taiichi Ohno and the Toyota Motor Company.  This design produces goods using Economy of Scope – a flexible system producing a wide variety of goods in small lots at low unit cost with superior quality and short lead times. Toyota-Style industrial engineers designed and ran the lean production system and it is being spread about the world just like the other two factory designs.  Evolving out of this revolution is the new IE which can be called  the Lean  Industrial Engineering (LIE).

The Lean Industrial  Engineer (LIE) knows IE fundamentals, knows lean engineering fundamentals, knows six sigma methodologies, knows lean-to-green factory design.  The LIE must know how to design and balance a mixed-model final assembly line to level of demand for goods from the supply chain.  Sub-assembly conveyor-based lines are dismantled and replaced with sub-assembly cells, U-shaped and staffed for flexibility.  Job shops are replaced with manufacturing cells based on standard work.  Cell design is based on takt time, sequence of operations and stock-on-hand.  Work holders are redesigned for rapid tooling exchange.  Cutting tool holders are redesigned for rapid tool changes. In-process inspection devices, defect prevention devices (poka-yokes) and decouplers are designed and integrated into the cells. Total Preventive Maintenance methods are developed and implemented to eliminate machine tool failures. Kanban systems are designed and implemented to link the sub-assembly cells to final assembly.  Over time, machine tools are upgraded or new machines are designed specifically to enable all the features of the cells plus many more to achieve world class manufacturing.  The overall effort to reduce waste is a great step toward operating a factory that sends zero waste to landfill.  This is the job description for the LEAN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER IN AN INDUSTRIAL ENGINEER'S WORLD.
http://www.eng.auburn.edu/calendar/2012/11/a-job-description-for-the-lean-engineer




The Economy of Scope and the Lean Engineer
Author / Creator: Black, J.T. ; Institute of Industrial Engineers (1981-)
In: ANNUAL IIE CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION -CD-ROM EDITION-; A875
Institute of Industrial Engineers;


Industrial Engineering in Toyota - Pages 33 to 58
See Google Book Link
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=8WU7drWVgT8C

Managing IE Mindset - Toyota's Practical Thinking
http://www.jiem.org/index.php/jiem/article/view/293/252

Design of Toyota Production System - Won, Cochran,Johnson
http://www.systemdesignllc.com/pdf/paper15.pdf

Summary - Study of TPS from IE viewpoint - Shiego Shingo
http://www.ce.berkeley.edu/~tommelein/lci/tps_study.pdf


Denis R. Towill, (2010) "Industrial engineering the Toyota Production System", Journal of Management History, Vol. 16 Iss: 3, pp.327 - 345
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1865224
Summary of the article is in http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2012/04/industrial-engineering-toyota.html



Study on modern analysis techniques for lean implementation an Industrial engineering
approach
S.Vijay(1),Dr.A.R.Lakshmanan(2), PG Scholar(1),Associate Professor(2),
 Department of Mechanical Engineering(1)(2),PSG College of technology(1)(2),Coimbatore, India,
Proceedings of the National Conference on Manufacturing Innovation Strategies & Appealing
Advancements
MISAA2013
April 19, 2013, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, India
Dr. A.R. Lakshmanan, Dept of Mechanical Engineering 
laxs99 @ gmail.com 
Phone: 0422 - 4344252 
Fax: 0422 - 2573833 


Motion and Time Study for Lean Manufacturing, 3rd Edition By Fred E. Meyers, Jim R. Stewart - Book Information

Lean and Clean Production Systems - Industrial Engineering Solution


Lean Six Sigma Methods - MIT Course YouTube Videos - Part 2






Decomposition of the Goals of Lean System


FR0—Maximizing value

FR 1—Maximizing sales revenue

FR341—Maximizing customer satisfaction
FR342—Meeting customer expected lead time
FR343—Profitability and satisfied shareholders
FR344—Maximizing long-term return on
FR345—Manufacturing products to target design specification

FR 2—Eliminating waste entirely from production chain

FR11—Eliminating all kinds of waste from product flow
FR12—Synchronizing activities

FR32—Minimizing production costs

FR321—Decreasing idle time of the production line by feeding the
line punctually and increasing availability
FR322—Minimizing investment
FR323—Elimination of defective production
FR324—Receiving the best parts from the suppliers
FR325—Facilitating internal handling
FR326—Eliminating difficult operations and unconformity parts
FR327—Making inspection effective

FR33—Facilitating flow and eliminating non-value adding operations

FR331—Eliminating handling wastes
FR332—Eliminating inspection
FR333—Eliminating temporary storage
FR334—Diminishing work-in-progress

FR2—Creating a lean enterprise

FR21—Diffusing lean thinking across the organization
FR22—Quick problem solving cycles
FR23—Coordinating various organizational sections
FR24—Knowledge acquisition capability
FR25—Integrated problem solving
FR26—Flexible work assignment
FR27—Continuous improvement practices
FR28—Increasing lean culture and motivation
FR29—Increasing supplier’s performance level and their lean culture


FR3—Adapting quickly to markets

FR31—Lean product development

FR311—Reducing variety of parts
FR312—Reduce production cycle time through the design
FR313—Quick product development
FR314—Enhancing the design features



The lean principles and practices in the context of this study
P1—Utilizing computerized systems—IT technologies
P2—Utilizing Hoshin Karni and devising strategic plans regarding
lean philosophy
P3—Implementation of suggestion system and applying team
awarding systems
P4—Arranging cross-functional teams and multifunctional workers
P5—Delegating responsibilities to working teams and expansion
of autonomy and responsibility
P6—Designing comprehensive training programs
P7—Diffusing Deming cycle in the enterprise
P8—Applying product modularization and rapid prototyping
P9—Applying DFXs, AD, QFD
P10—Applying SMED techniques
P11—Implementing TPM
P12—Focusing on the root causes of defects
P13—Establishing an efficient material handling and eliminating
incoming and outgoing storage
P14—Using ANDON systems
P15—Using value stream analysis and value stream mapping
P16—Implementing cellular manufacturing—arrange working
cells based on minimizing total handling costs
P17—Applying JIT techniques and utilizing kanban systems
P18—Applying SQC tools and standardizing
P19—Applying automation technologies wherever possible—
especially in difficult and handling operation
P20—Evaluation of investment needs and resources
P21—Implementing 5S—shop-floor organization
P22—Establishing JIDOKA—a robust quality control at the source,
error proof equipment, and using adaptive control
P23—Establishing leveled production—small lot sizing,
mixed model scheduling, and synchronized scheduling
P24—Establishing long-term contracts with suppliers and
establishing pull system in suppliers
P25—Involvement of customer in product design and quality programs
P26—Involvement of supplie



Source: An ANP-based assessment model for lean
enterprise transformation
Ibrahim Cil & Yusuf S. Turkan
Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2013) 64:1113–1130


Job Description - Supplier Lean Industrial Engineer

Job Title: Supplier Lean Engineer Job Code:
Department: Operations Date: October 2013

Summary of Position:

Under limited supervision from the Director of Operations, this position is responsible for
leading the development and implementation of results-focused Lean and process improvement
initiatives in all supplier factories. Develop standards, procedures and material flow through
analyzing data and observations. Foster a lean culture throughout all supplier organizations
using lean tools, techniques, training and coaching of employees. Partner with US and China
representative.

Major Functions:

1. Collaborate with leadership to develop and implement plans to guide the organizations
through all phases of the lean enterprise transition ensuring activities support and
further the strategic objectives of the company.
2. Analyze, develop and implement processes that aid the business in operating more
efficiently with best in class manufacturing partnering with business leaders to identify
improvement opportunities and develop a schedule
3. Engage employees in lean philosophy to minimize waste and improve productivity.
4. Conduct basic lean training to ensure that employees understand the expectations and
understand lean principles.
5. Conduct Kaizen events, projects and processes to increase effectiveness and efficiency
of all aspects of the company. Including the design and engineering of devices,
machines and software to support these events and process improvements.
6. Manage and train in the creation of Standard Work for manufacturing.
7. Assist the various manufacturing teams in developing and implementing various Lean
action items to increase the efficiency of the production area

8. Partner with Suppliers and Brahmin to ensure interfaces that are created work
seamlessly with other systems.
9. Educate and implement improvements to sub-contractors and business partners to
enhance their effectiveness and potential cost savings.
10. Other duties as assigned to facilitate the lean/process improvement.

Education, Knowledge, Training, Skills and Experience Required:

Bachelor’s Degree in Mechanical, Industrial or Manufacturing Engineering, along with 5 years’
experience in a manufacturing environment is typically preferred. Strong background in
leading lean improvements events, completion of formal lean training and six sigma a plus.
Demonstrated ability to influence and guide team of peers & employees is required. Ability to
work on multiple projects with limited supervision is critical in this role. Fluency in Mandarin,
Cantonese and English required.
http://www.polyu.edu.hk/aado/email/AlumNews_20131115_BRAHMIN.pdf

New Book - 2012

Reducing Process Costs with Lean, Six Sigma, and Value Engineering Techniques

Kim H. Pries, Jon M. Quigley
CRC Press, 13-Dec-2012 -  365 pages


A company with effective cost reduction activities in place will be better positioned to adapt to shifting economic conditions. In fact, it can make the difference between organizations that thrive and those that simply survive during times of economic uncertainty. Reducing Process Costs with Lean, Six Sigma, and Value Engineering Techniques covers the methods and techniques currently available for lowering the costs of products, processes, and services.

Describing why cost reductions can be just as powerful as revenue increases, the book arms readers with the understanding required to select the best solution for their company’s culture and capabilities. It emphasizes home-grown techniques that do not require the implementation of any new methodologies—making it easy to apply them in any organization.

The authors explain how to reduce costs through traditional Lean methods and Lean Six Sigma. They also present Six Sigma cost savings techniques from Manufacturing Six Sigma, Services Six Sigma, and Design for Six Sigma. The book also presents optimization techniques from operations research methods, design experiment, and engineering process control.

Helping you determine what your organization’s value proposition is, the text explains how to improve on the existing proposition and suggests a range of tools to help you achieve this goal. The tools and techniques presented vary in complexity and capability and most chapters include a rubric at the start to help readers determine the levels of competence required to perform the tasks outlined in that chapter.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=KuHWNrxmShsC


On the origins of lean manufacturing

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(Check whether the video is to be changed by finding video uploaded by some other channel)


Levelling Production - The Challenge
http://www.lean.org/LeanPost/Posting.cfm?LeanPostId=154#.UxNpd-OSxe4


More detail on Level Scheduling - The Magic of Leveled Scheduling - Alan Mitchell
http://www.leanuk.org/downloads/general/the_magic_of_levelled_scheduling.pdf


Lean Edge - Dialogue between business leaders and lean authors - Very Interesting Collection
http://theleanedge.org/?p=255874

1 comment:

  1. very informative material.. sir can you include more about Lean in IT service management.

    ReplyDelete