85% Cost Reduction Due to Additive Manufacturing - $50,000 to $7,000.10 sets of inlet booster rake for measuring air flow turbine engine test cells were made for $50,000 using a combination of welding, brazing, EDM, and other conventional medicines. The additive machining technology center made it for $7,000.
Donald Godfrey, Honeywell, ISABE 2015 Manuscript
Huge Savings at Company Level - Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies
Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies has achieved huge cost reduction. As of FY 2018, they have printed more than 60,000 tooling fixtures for product testing and calculated $125 million in cost avoidance.
Design for Additive Manufacturing - Additive Manufacturing Industrial Engineering are Necessary for Effectiveness and Productivity3D Printing is not simple.
For industrial parts, There is a workflow before the machine and after the machine with hundreds of variables that need to be specified and controlled to make sure of getting an industrial-grade part reliably, repeatably at reduced cost.
Huge Hybrid Manufacturing Machine is Ready to Start 3D Printing Construction Parts and Structures and Give Higher Productivity31 JAN 2019
The machine will be tested to manufacture demonstrator parts, such as large cantilever beam structures, airplane panels and wind turbine parts. The machine and the process technologies are expected provide a more productive solution for the hybrid manufacturing of large engineering parts and deliver a projected 20% reduction in time and cost expenditure, as well as a target 15% increase in productivity for high-volume additive manufacturing production.
3D printing 100 times faster with light
Rather than building up plastic filaments layer by layer, a new approach to 3D printing lifts complex shapes from a vat of liquid at up to 100 times faster than conventional 3D printing processes, University of Michigan researchers have shown.
January 11, 2019
SLA 3D Printing 100 Times Faster
MIT Researchers Developed FDM 3D Printing Head that makes Build Speed 10X
A. John Hart, an associate professor of mechanical engineering and director of the Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity and the Mechanosynthesis Group at MIT.
Screw mechanism for feeding the wire and a laser in the printhead to melt the wire more thoroughly were incorporated into the print head.
February 2016 information
Productivity Drivers - 3D Printing
The output per unit time of 3D printer depends on
–Size of extrusion nozzle opening: ; The bigger the opening the more the material flow.
–Size of part to be printed. More volume, more time
–Part orientation on the build bed. X-Y orientations can usually be built faster than parts set up to build in the Z orientation.
–Complexity of part to be printed. Parts with many angles, curves and other geometric features will take longer to build than a straightforward box type shape.
–Material choice. In extrusion systems, every material flows at a different rate.
–Type of laser used in powder-bed systems.
–Type of material used in powder-bed systems. Plastics and metals will build at different rates.
–Required print resolution; Fine resolutions mean slower build rates.
–Part density. Fully dense parts can take longer to build than those with filler support.
The Ultimaker desktop 3D printer, gives its depositio rates as: With a 0.25 size nozzle, it is up to 8 mm3/s, a 0.40 nozzle it is up to 16 mm3/s, a 0.60 nozzle up to 23 mm3/s, and a 0.80 nozzle can deposit up to 24 mm3/s.
Professional 3D printer, the SLM Solutions 500HL gives deposition rates for its two-laser version as 55 cubic centimeters/hour, and its four-laser version as 105 cubic centimeters/hour.
Comparison of FDM, SLA and SLM
Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)
Fused Deposition Modeling is the most widely used form of 3D printing at the consumer level. , FDM 3D printers build parts by melting and extruding thermoplastic filament, which a print nozzle deposits layer by layer in the build area. FDM works with a range of standard thermoplastics, such as ABS, PLA, and their various blends. The technique is well-suited for basic proof-of-concept models, as well as quick and low-cost prototyping of simple parts. .
Stereolithography was the world’s first 3D printing technology, invented in the 1980s, and is one of the most popular technologies for professionals. SLA uses a laser to cure liquid resin into hardened plastic in a process called photopolymerization. SLA parts have the highest resolution and accuracy, the clearest details, and the smoothest surface finish of all plastic 3D printing technologies. Material manufacturers have created innovative SLA resin formulations with a wide range of optical, mechanical, and thermal properties to match those of standard, engineering, and industrial thermoplastics.
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)
Selective laser sintering is the most common additive manufacturing technology for industrial applications. SLS 3D printers use a high-powered laser to fuse small particles of polymer powder. The unfused powder supports the part during printing and eliminates the need for dedicated support structures. SLS is ideal for complex geometries, including interior features, undercuts, thin walls, and negative features. Parts produced with SLS printing have excellent mechanical characteristics, with strength resembling that of injection-molded parts.
Beyond prototyping: Scaling up to additive manufacturing for production
Friday, September 28, 2018
Design for Additive Manufacturing
Georgia Institute of Technology
Conference Paper, January 2014
Igor Yadroitsev, Ina Yadroitsava, Philippe Bertrand, Igor Smurov, (2012) "Factor analysis of selective laser melting process parameters and geometrical characteristics of synthesized single tracks", Rapid Prototyping Journal, Vol. 18 Issue: 3, pp.201-208, https://doi.org/10.1108/13552541211218117
Paper available for review in the Google Book
Nowadays to increase productivity of SLM process, high laser power up to 400 W and high scanning speed up to 3 m/s are used.
Smaller thickness of layer allows for better accuracy of the manufactured part. But increases manufacturing time. (page 122 of the book)
Updated on 29 January 2019,
5 October 2018, 4 August 2017