Sunday, August 11, 2019

Principles of Methods Efficiency Engineering


Methods Redesign for Efficiency/Productivity - Material, Product Design, Material Transformation Steps, Machine Effort, Human Effort

Marvin Mundel, Gerald Nadler


Nadler credits Mundel for the following steps to be followed in methods redesign.

1. Change the material being used or contemplated to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
2. Change the present or contemplated design of product to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
3. Change the present or contemplated sequence of modification work on the material or product to help meet the goal of for operation being studied.
4. Change the equipment used or contemplated  for the operation to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
5. Change the method or hand pattern used or contemplated for the operation to help the goal for operation being studied.


(Source: Gerald Nadler, Motion and Time Study, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1955,   p.193. Nadler in turn gives credit to Marvin E. Mundel, Motion and Time Study Principles and Practice, Prentice-Hall, New York, 1950, pp. 23-26.)

But Lowry, Maynard,  and Stegemerten proposed the same in 1927.   Maynard,  and Stegemerten  (1939) wrote a detailed book on Operation Analysis describing each step in one full chapter or even more chapters. Nadler cited  Lowry, Maynard,  and Stegemerten in the book and gave Maynard,  and Stegemerten  (1939) in the bibliography. We can observe the scope for product industrial engineeringprocess industrial engineering and human effort industrial engineering clearly in these five steps of Mundel - Nadler.


Goal of Methods Efficiency Engineering Project


For successful work in any field, it is important to define beforehand what is to be accomplished. The goal-determination step includes:

1. General goal: Most industries have as a goal a better product for a lower cost. For industrial engineering projects, the general goals most of the times are going to be cost reduction and increased productivity.
2.After the general goals is decided the next decision is "where to start the work?" Will it be  single operation or full process.?
3. For each specific problem, a specific goal is to be determined.


Some of the specific goal alternatives are:


Eliminate time spent in obtaining and tools
Reduce discomfort of the operator
Improve the organization of the workplace
Eliminate some make-ready time.
Eliminate some put-away time.
Reduce operator delay
Reduce total cycle time.
Reduce scrap.


Guidelines for Use of Principles using ECRS and 5W1H Approaches


Principles are to be applied creatively. Creativity is finding many alternative ways of solving an issue by relating the problem with various principles, techniques, tools and methods available as knowledge with a person or team. Knowledge can be implicit with persons or with explicit books, magazines, journals, catalogues, brochures, price lists, web sites etc.

Check List of Questions for identifying changes possible

These questions are similar to questions given by Maynard,  and Stegemerten  (1939)

1. Material

Change the material being used or contemplated to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
Can the material being received for the operation be
eliminated or combined or simplified to help meet the goal set for the operation improvement by
using a different material
using scrap instead of virgin material
changing the size of the part
using a stronger material
lighter gauge material
changing auxiliary materials (like oils etc.)
changing finish specifications
changing shape
changing product design to eliminate the material
getting material in better packaging
5W1H

What material is being used?
What else can be used?
Who is supplying it?
Who else can supply it?
Where is it stored?
Where else it can be stored?
Where is it delivered to the operation?
Where else it can be delivered?
When is it brought for the operation?
When else it can be brought for the operation?
How is it packed and unpacked?
How else it can be packed and unpacked?


2. Component or Product Design
Change the present or contemplated design of product to help meet the goal for the operation being studied.
Can the design of the component or subassembly or the product be changed
to eliminate the operation, combine the operation, rearrange the operation or simplify the operation
to help meet the goal for the goal set for the operation improvement by:


Loosening tolerances
putting on positioning devices
providing larger grasping surface
chamfering mating parts
reducing length of parts to be assembled
greater interchangeability
redesigning for standardization
heat treating
specifying minimum material to be removed in the operation
5W1H

What is the design feature to be produced in the operation?
What else can do its job in the product?
Where is the design feature on the component?
Where else it can be there?
When is the design feature produced?
When else can it be produced?
How it is specified?
How else it can be specified?


Source: Gerald Nadler, Motion and Time Study, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1955, Table 12.1

Updated on 12 August 2019, 19 April 2012

First published in this blog on 19 April 2012


Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/principles-of-methods-efficiency/2utb2lsm2k7a/ 3915

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