Tuesday, June 28, 2016

July First Week - Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision

Scientific Management of Taylor

Taylor's book is a must reading for industrial engineers. The book emphasizes the development of scientific laws relating to use of machines, tools, related resources and men. This is development of science. Once science is developed, industrial engineers use that science to develop productive machines, productivity improvement devices and methods and that improve productivity.  Taylor also examines some management methods that are sources for low productivity. He suggests management methods that improve productivity. Then Taylor, discusses issues relating to implementing productivity improvement methods. Industrial engineers have no other comparable book on philosophy in their discipline. Hence it has to be read and reread till a new book is authored by a modern day Taylor by incorporating all that has happened in the discipline over the last 100 to 120 years.

First Week

1 July

1. Importance of National Efficiency

2. Foundation of Scientific Management

2 July 

3. Soldiering and Its Causes

4. Underlying Philosophy for the Old Systems of Management

3 July

5. Scientific Management - Introduction


4 July

7. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - - Pig Iron Handling

8. Background for Development of Scientific Management - -Midvale Steel Company Machine Shop

5 July

9. Elaborate Planning Organization - Need and Utility

10. Illustrations of Success of Scientific Management - Bricklaying Improvement by Gilbreth

Your comments are welcome on each article

One Year Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Internet of Things - Productivity Applications



Physical infrastructure electronic devices that are able to sense, generate, and transmit data have been around for nearly 50 years. In 1968 Schneider Electric invented the first Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). But the change now in 2015 is the fact that  the cost of IP enablement is now so low and therefore all sorts of devices can be connected to internet to participate in the more open IP-style network and transmit data and receive instructions form various computers anywhere in the world.

Thus IoT allows plants to now monitor new variables that, in the past, were cost prohibitive. Measurement of vibration on machinery and power consumption on all branches of the power system are some examples of how IoT can be cost effectively used in manufacturing and service systems. These lower entry costs are leading to the explosion of the network and generating  a more granular level of data on the existing assets of the firms.

The free-flowing yet structured management of the new data allows managers  within organisations to improve real-time energy and automation tracking in order to cut costs, and operate more safety, reliably, and efficiently.

Leading analysts such as McKinsey & Company are predicting that IoT-enabled business will grow to $10 trillion annually by 2025. IoT will enable higher levels of collaboration and will change the way goods are produced.

Michael Porter is a Harvard economist  expects Internet of Things will deliver "tremendous" efficiency gains.

The Internet of Things will help individual companies to limit the waste factor in global economies in more effective ways. Products which are connected to the web can communicate on their usage patter. This data will be used to schedule maintenance when it's really needed, increasing efficiency. The data will also be used in predictive analytics to reduce failures and improve product design. In sum, all those functionalities will boost the efficiency of production systems.


Updated  27 June 2016, 19 Apr 2016, 6 Apr 2016
10 Dec 2015

Friday, June 24, 2016

Success Stories of Industrial Engineers

Success Story of Industrial Engineer
24 June 2016
Isaac Mitchell, Director, Lean Continuous Improvement, East Tennessee Children’s Hospital. Bachelor of Science, Industrial Engineering, University of Tennessee


Industrial Engineering - Definition, Explanation, History, and Programs

"Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineeering."

Japanese companies used industrial engineering extensively and improved the understanding of industrial engineering methods among their workmen and achieved unprecedented increase in the productivity of their industrial enterprises.




Industrial engineering directs the efficient conduct of manufacturing, construction, transportation, or even commercial enterprises of any undertaking, indeed in which human labor is directed to accomplishing any kind of work . Industrial engineering has drawn upon mechanical engineering, upon economics, sociology, psychology, philosophy, accountancy, to fuse from these older sciences a distinct body of science of its own . It is the inclusion of the economic and the human elements especially that differentiates industrial engineering from the older established branches of the profession (Going, 1911) [1].

“Industrial engineering is the engineering approach applied to all factors, including the human factor, involved in the production and distribution of products or services.” (Maynard, 1953) [2]
“Industrial engineering is the design of situations for the useful coordination of men, materials and machines in order to achieve desired results in an optimum manner. The unique characteristics of Industrial Engineering center about the consideration of the human factor as it is related to the technical aspects of a situation, and the integration of all factors that influence the overall situation.” (Lehrer, 1954) [3]
“Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, and installation of integrated systems of men, materials, and equipment. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems.” (AIIE, 1955). [4]

"Industrial engineering may be defined as the art of utilizing scientific principles, psychological data, and physiological information for designing, improving, and integrating industrial, management, and human operating procedures." (Nadler, 1955) [5]

“Industrial engineering is that branch of engineering knowledge and practice which
 1. Analyzes, measures, and improves the method of performing the tasks assigned to individuals,
2. Designs and installs better systems of integrating tasks assigned to a group,
3. Specifies, predicts, and evaluates the results obtained.
 It does so by applying to materials, equipment and work specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical and physical sciences and the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design. Since, however, work has to be carried out by people; engineering knowledge needs to be supplemented by knowledge derived from the biological and social sciences.” (Lyndall Urwick, 1963) [6]

Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of people, materials, information, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems. [7]
“Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering. It is an engineering discipline that deals with the design of human effort in all occupations: agricultural, manufacturing and service. The objectives of Industrial Engineering are optimization of productivity of work-systems and occupational comfort, health, safety and income of persons involved.” (Narayana Rao, 2006) [8]
Definition proposed in this knol.
"Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineeering. It is an engineering discipline that deals with the design of human effort and system efficiency in all occupations: agricultural, manufacturing and service. The objectives of Industrial Engineering are optimization of productivity of work-systems and occupational comfort, health, safety and income of persons involved."


1. Going, Charles Buxton, Principles of Industrial Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1911, Pages 1,2,3
2. Maynard, H.B., “Industrial Engineering”, Encyclopedia Americana, Americana Corporation, Vol. 15, 1953
3. Lehrer, Robert N., “The Nature of Industrial Engineering,” The Journal of Industrial Engineering, vol.5, No.1, January 1954, Page 4
4. Maynard, H.B.,  Handbook of Industrial Engineering, 2nd Edition,  McGraw Hill, New York, 1963.
5. Nadler, Gerald, Motion and Time Study", McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1955
6. Urwick, Lyndall, F., “Development of Industrial Engineering”, Chapter 1 in Handbook of Industrial Engineering, H.B. Maynard (Ed.), 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1963.
7. http://www.iienet2.org/Details.aspx?id=282
8. Narayana Rao, K.V.S.S., “Definition of Industrial Engineering: Suggested Modification.” Udyog Pragati, October-December 2006, Pp. 1-4.

What is Industrial Engineering?

Industrial engineering can be better explained with the statement that the two focus areas of industrial engineering are human effort engineering and system efficiency engineering. These two focus areas match with Urwick’s statement 1 and 2. Industrial engineering (i) analyzes, measures, and improves the method of performing the tasks assigned to individuals, and (ii) Designs and installs better systems of integrating tasks assigned to a group (Urwick, Lyndall, F., “Development of Industrial Engineering”, Chapter 1 in Handbook of Industrial Engineering, H.B. Maynard (Ed.), 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1963).
It is interesting to note that the first representation to the teachers and practioners of industrial engineering was given in the name of Industrial and Efficiency Engineering Committee in 1912 in Society for Promotion of Engineering Education (S.P.E.E.). In this committee, there were three teachers and 8 practioners and Frank Gilbreth was among practioners (Gerald Thusesne, History of Development of Engineering Economic Representation in within A.S.E.E.).
System design and system efficiency design are to be distinguished by dividing system design into system functional design and system efficiency design. Engineers or managers with specialization in a function do the functional design part. An electrical power generation system is designed by electrical engineers. Industrial engineers may take up the functional design and do efficiency engineering work on it. Similarly a marketing system is designed by marketing managers, and industrial engineers may do efficiency engineering of it.
 The explanation of industrial engineering as human effort engineering and system efficiency engineering brings out more clearly the scope of the IIE definition that industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, and installation of integrated systems. The word engineering is associated with design and production, fabrication or construction according to designs.  As explained above, system design in entirety cannot be the sole preserve of industrial engineers.  The functional design of production systems in various branches of engineering can be done by engineers of that branch only. Similarly functional design of various management systems in a business organization can be done by managers of that function only. Industrial engineers have a role to play in systems design and it is of designing efficiency into the functional systems designed by others.

Maynard stated the scope of industrial engineering in his preface to the second edition of Hand Book of Industrial Engineering, edited by him in 1963. Industrial engineers have been traditionally concerned with the design of manufacturing plants, methods improvement, work measurement, the design and administration of wage payment systems, cost control, quality control, production control and the like. These procedures are all directed toward the reduction of cost. All the techniques of industrial engineering reflect the common denominator of all industrial engineering work – an intense interest in improving thing that is currently being planned or done. Cost reduction or efficiency improvement is the focus of industrial engineering. Maynard also pointed out in his preface that developments in applied mathematics and statistics during the post world war years facilitated industrial engineer to tackle design of much larger systems with more predictive power.

In 1943, the Work Standardization Committee of the Management Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers identified the following areas as the purview of industrial engineer: Budgets and cost control, manufacturing engineering, organization analysis, systems & procedures, and wage & salary administration. The traditional industrial engineering methods of operation analysis, motion study, work measurement, standardization of the method were included in manufacturing engineering and these techniques are relevant for hourly base wage rate determination, incentives and administration of wage payment.
The study of various functional areas in industrial engineering curriculums is for the purpose of understanding the functional designs in those areas and industrial engineering graduates should not claim expertise in those subjects to do functional design unless they really specialize in them through extra study and experience of efficiency design of many systems in the same functional area.

According to M.H. Mathewson, industrial engineering is distinguished from other engineering disciplines in that it:

1. Places increased emphasis on the integration of human being into the system.
2. Is concerned with the total system.
3. Predicts and interprets the economic results.
4. Makes greater utilization of the contribution of the social sciences than do other engineering disciplines.

Industrial Engineering as practiced today can be explained by identifying three components.

1. Human Effort Engineering
2. System Efficiency Engineering
3. Systems Design, Installation and Improvement Management.
All methods and techniques of industrial engineering can be categorized under these three major components.



Methods of Industrial Engineering

Techniques of Industrial Engineering

Human Effort Engineering - Techniques

4. Application of Ergonomics and Biomechanics
5. Fatigue Studies
6. Productivity/Safety/Comfort Device Design
7. Standardization of  Methods
8. Operator training
9. Incentive Systems
10. Job Evaluation
11. Learning effect capture

Efficiency Improvement Techniques of Industrial engineering 

1. Process Analysis 
2. Operation Analysis 
3. Time study
4. Value engineering
5. Statistical quality control
6. Statistical inventory control and ABC Classification Based Inventory Sytems
7. Six sigma
8. Operations research
9. Variety reduction
10. Standardization
11. Incentive schemes
12. Waste reduction or elimination
13. Activity based management
14. Business process improvement
15. Fatigue analysis and reduction
16. Engineering economy analysis
17. Learning effect capture and continuous improvement (Kaizen, Quality circles and suggestion schemes)
18. Standard costing
19. 5S
20. SMED

Development of Industrial Engineering -  History

Industrial engineering as the application of engineering approach to factory manufacture developed initially over a 30 year period spanning 1882 to 1912. The important mile stones in this period are:

1. The idea that engineers have to design and fabricate products at costs, large number of consumers can afford to pay was advocated. This idea gave birth to the subject of Engineering Economics subsequently. H.R. Towne’s address in 1886 to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) “The Engineer as an Economist” was a classic paper in this area.  The papers of Oberlin Smith also fall in this group.
 2. Engineers got interested in wage incentive methods. Papers by Towne, F.R. Halsey and H.L.Gantt between 1880 ad 1895 addressed this issue.
 3. Engineers got involved in factory accounting issues. An English engineer and accountant, Emile Garcke and J.M. Fells published a book on factory accounts in 1889.
 4. Engineers recognized the importance of production control and paid attention to improve the procedures of production control. H.C. Metcalfe’s “ A Shop Order System of Accounts” was an early paper in this regard.
 5. F.W. Taylor addressed issues related to shop management in a more comprehensive manner in his paper “Shop Management” (1903).
 6. Frank Gilbreth developed the motion study technique.
7. H.L. Gantt advocated training of operators.
 8. Harrington Emerson came out with a book that emphasized efficiency of business organizations and systems.
 9. Lillian Moller Gilbreth work along with Frank Gilbreth and applied psychology to industrial work.
10. Hugo Diemer authored book on Factory Management emphasizing industrial engineering (1910).
11. Charles Going authored the book, Principles of Industrial Engineering (1911).
Among the pioneers, F.W. Taylor is hailed as the father of scientific management as he was the first person to perceive the interconnection between these initiatives and integrated them into a philosophy of management “Scientific Management.”

The earliest reference to Industrial Engineering was  the address delivered by Henry R. Towne[1] at the Purdue University on February 24th, 1905. According to him,” the Engineer is one who, in the world of physics and applied sciences, begets new things, or adapts old things to new and better uses; above all, one who, in that field, attains new results in the best way and at lowest cost.” Towne explained that Industrial Engineering is the practice of one or more branches of engineering in connection with some organized establishment of a productive character, in which are conducted the operations required in the production of some article, or series of articles, of commerce or consumption. Nearly all industrial work of this kind, especially if it be conducted on a large scale, involves technical, physical, and engineering questions, varying with the kind of industry but usually of wide scope.

Industrial engineers have to do both technical and administrative work; that is, they have to take responsibility both for the design and character of the product, and for the economy of its production. According to Towne, the industrial engineer as  the man  responsible for the daily operation and, still more, for the vitality and growth of a large industrial plant, must be a many-sided Engineer. He has to consider the planning and, construction of new buildings. He has also to deal with the question of power and its distribution, with steam engines and boilers, with electric generation and transmission, with shafting and belting, in many cases with pumping and the use of compressed air for many purposes, in all cases with heating, ventilating, plumbing and sanitation, and in large plants with questions of internal transportation  he has to  select the right men for the various positions to be filled, and inspire them with ambition and the right spirit in their work. He has to  coordinate their work so as to produce the best final result and understand and direct the technical operations and appreciate quickly and surely whether or not they are properly performed. Industrial engineer combines in one personality  two functions of technical knowledge and executive ability, and a person  who has aptitude for both the fields  has open to him unlimited opportunities in the field of industrial engineering.
According to Urwick, persons who liked Taylors ideas called themselves as industrial engineers, when both big business companies and trade union disliked "scientific management."[2]


  1. Towne, Henry R., “Industrial Engineering” An Address Delivered  At the Purdue University, Friday, February 24th, 1905, downloaded from http://www.cslib.org/stamford/towne1905.htm

 2. Urwick, Lyndall, F., “Development of Industrial Engineering”, Chapter 1 in Handbook of Industrial Engineering, H.B. Maynard (Ed.), 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 1963.

Library Collections of Pioneers

F.W. Taylor's papers are at Steven Institute

Frank Gilbreth's Papers are at Purdue University

Harrington Emerson's papers are at Pennsylvania University


Efficiency is the focus of Industrial Engineering

IIE describes itself as the Global Association of Productivity and Efficiency Professionals (http://www.iienet2.org/Default.aspx accessed on 20.1.2010).


Professional Societies in Industrial Engineering

Taylor Society

New York Efficiency Society

In 1912, Harrington Emerson helped to found the New York Efficiency Society which promoted and disseminated the ideals of reform through scientific management.

Society of Industrial Engineers

It was founded in 1917.
Society of Industrial Engineers was formed  in 1917, as a measure for helping the war effort, from the Western Efficiency Society (1910)

Society for Advancement of Management
SAM traces is origin to Taylor Society that was founded in 1912 by the colleagues and disciples of Frederick Taylor, the "Father of Scientific Management”. In 1936 the Taylor Society and the Society of Industrial Engineers merged to form the Society for the Advancement of Management.

American Institute of Industrial Engineers

University of Alabama Alumnus,  Wyllys G. Stanton invited a dozen gentlemen to his home one January evening in 1948 to discuss the formation of a new organization specializing in the interests of industrial engineers.
In 1948, the American Institute of Industrial Engineers (AIIE) was established: its objectives were many and compelling, but perhaps the most important was the professional recognition of IE.


The Institute of Industrial Engineers Australia
The Institute of Industrial Engineers celebrated it's 50th Anniversary year in 2008. In 1958 the Australian Methods Engineering Society was incorporated to become IIE Australia.

Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE)
The name of the American Institute of Industrial Engineers was changed to Institute of Industrial Engineers.
Gilbreth Network


Some Interesting Statements

Hoxie [2], who is probably best remembered as the one who was among the first to define the relationship between scientific and organized labor, and who insisted that "…Time and motion study, therefore, must be regarded as the chief cornerstone."
[2] R. R. Hoxie. Scientific management and labor welfare. Journal of Political Economy, XXIV, 1916, p.838. (C.F. Taylor said many years ago: "Time study is by far the most important element in scientific management." q.v. by A. H. Mogensen. Common Sense Applied to Motion and Time Study. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1932, p. 7.)

If a pragmatic beginning is sought for industrial engineering, it can be found in the pioneering work of Taylor in his attempt to answer the question: What is a fair day's work? Taylor was fond of quoting President Theodore Roosevelt who insisted that "The conservation of our national resources is only preliminary to the larger question of national efficiency." Almost a hundred years ago, Taylor noted:
We can see our forests vanishing, our water-powers going to waste, our soil being carried by floods into the sea; and the end of our coal and iron is in sight. But our larger wastes of human effort, which go on every day through such of our acts are as blundering, ill-directed, or inefficient…

Engineering might be defined as the art of controlling the forces and materials of nature, and organizing and directing men for the benefit of the human race.
(Nadler, Gerald, Motion and Time Study", McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1955, p.3)


Undergraduate and Graduate Programs in Industrial Engineering

F.W.Taylor is credited with instigating the first undergraduate curriculum in Industrial Engineering by recommending to Beaver, President of the Board of Trustees of Pennsylvania State University that Mechanical Engineering be taught from the vantage point of view of manufacturing rather than from the perspective of power plants and higher mathematics. 

In 1908, the first course was offered as an option in Mechanical Engineering. 

In 1909, the first baccalaureate program in Industrial Engineering was offered at Pennsylvania University. Hugo Diemer, a young professor from the University of Kansas, recruited by Penn state University on the recommendation of Frederick Taylor, developed and coordinated the program. Diemer is credited with offering the first paper/course in industrial engineering to be taught in the United States – “Machinery and Millwork” – at University of Kansas School of Engineering in 1899.  Professor Diemer described industrial engineers as persons "who are thoroughly familiar with the productive processes, with broad interests, and who are at the same time thorough accountants and businessmen." Accounting as an area of importance to industrial engineers was mentioned by Towne also.
Diemer wrote his most famous book Factory Organization and Administration  published by McGraw-Hill in 1910.

Visit the knol for more about programs

Ph.d degree in Industrial Engineering
R.M. Barnes was awarded the first Ph.d in Industrial Engineering.

Industrial Engineering Subjects for Functions of Business Organization

Product Design Industrial Engineering

Maintenance System Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Information Systems Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Financial System Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Marketing System Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Supply Chain Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Manufacturing System Industrial Engineering - Online Book

Total Cost Industrial Engineering - Industrial Engineering of Enterprise Cost

Quality System Industrial Engineering


Related Knols

Originally posted in Knol
http://knol.google.com/k/ industrial-engineering Knol number 1151

By Narayana Rao K.V.S.S.

updated  26 June 2016, 12 June 2016, 12 Oct 2012

Industry Week Updates on Manufacturing Technology, Management and Productivity

System and Human Dimensions of Industrial Engineering - H. Harold Bass

Definition of Industrial Engineering by Narayana Rao KVSS: Industrial Engineering is System Efficiency Engineering and Human Effort Engineering.

Excerpts From

H. Harold Bass
Supervisor Research and Development Group
Industrial Engineering Division
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York
1963, University of California

The publishers have given permission to all to include the articles as needed provided reference is given.

 It has seemed to me that industrial engineers tend to get smothered in their growing body of techniques and perhaps lose sight of the ends towhichthese techniques should be directed.

If there is anyone theme which has persisted throughout the history of industrial engineering it
is the theme of improving Organization Performance.

There are a number of dimensions along which breadth of industrial engineering practice could be
discussed. I should like to emphasize two dimensions which I shall call the ''Systems Dimension''
and the ''Human Dimension."

I. The Systems Dimension

It seems that there has been one characteristic of traditional industrial engineering practice. Our
approach for many years assumed that we should concentrate on unit operations. Despite admonitions
such as ''look at the preceding and succeeding operation" we have by and large tended to optimize Organizational Performance piece by piece.

 The Systems' concept teaches that the sum of optimal parts is not necessarily equal to an optimal whole. Interactions between units or sub-systems and environmental variables can affect the performance of a system. The effects of this are only obvious when we grasp the system as a total system.

Linear Programming has enabled us to assess the total system of products and machines,
take into account the many inter-relationships of production rates and costs and arrive at a machine
loading program that is within the specified restrictions and is optimal for the total system.
Problems involving a large number of products and machines rapidly tax the capacities of the
most modern computers; however, efficient algorithms are capable of solving problems with as many as 300 products and 18 machines.

The linear programming approach has proven useful not only as a control in assigning products
on a weekly basis, but for long range planning of machine requirements such as;
1. Determining where to place development effort to overcome technological restrictions
which limit the capability of products to be produced on certain machines.
2. Determining the economics of adding additional capacity which is generally
more efficient than present equipment.
3. Determining the best allocation of products for special situations such as extended
periods of machine downtime for maintenance or design changes. This is just one example of work done in the Systems Dimension. Actually, the technology in this area has developed rapidly and can have significant influence on our goal of improving .Organization Performance.

II. The Human Dimension
For the Human Dimension, I'd like to cover two areas; Work Physiology and Organizational
Behavior.  Let's take Work Physiology, first.

A. Work Physiology

In the year 1903, Frederick W. Taylor in his book Shop Management stated, "One of the
most difficult pieces of work which must be faced by the man who is to set the daily tasks is
to decide just how hard it is for him to make the task." (end of quote) This, then, at the
time of Taylor was a decision under conditions of uncertainty and not a measurement. And,
judging by the labor disputes which arise over this question, we seem to be no nearer the point
of being definitive about this question than was Taylor.

What is work effort? Is there an objective way of measuring this effort? Effort can be defined
as an exertion of power or energy and this can be measured and quantified. Energy cannot
be measured by measuring time, but it can be measured by measuring such physiological
phenomena as heart rate, oxygen comsumption and respiratory volume.

The industrial engineer has implied consideration of these physiological phenomena in his concern with fatigue allowances and rest pauses, but even these allowances have generally been based upon time criterion rather than physiological measurements.

Today the industrial engineer has available to him, thru his own and other disciplines, the knowledge
and capability necessary for making quantitative determinations of many of these factors involved
in studying man at work. In the future, to successfully fulfill our role of studying man at work and to integrate him into the organizational system, we need to know the real demands which are being placed upon people. In a sense, we need to know their tolerance to physical and psychological loading.

While as engineers, we wouldn't think of regularly exceeding the design capacity of a production
machine, neither should we exceed the design capacity of the human operator. Knowing this
design capacity has definite humanitarian and economic value.

The optimum work situation is when the work capacities of an individual are compatible
to the work demands of the job. If we underload the individual, the situation is obviously inefficient
and costly. Although it is less obvious, the reverse is also very costly. The resolution of
grievances over work rate, working conditions, and the costs of on-plant medical care, as well
as compensation, do not come cheaply.

While I have earlier singled out the area of effort determination, I don't wish to imply that
this is the only area in which knowledge of human capacities and capabilities is needed. Some other
work situations in which such knowledge is needed are; tasks involving maintenance of a performance level during monitoring and vigilance tasks, frequent decision-making associated with
rapid paced operations, and the integration of an aging industrial population into an increasingly
complex and rapid paced industrial enviornment.

To define and approach these problems requires an understanding and application of physiological
knowledge. engineers. If they are to be solved, we must seek the assistance of other professions
and disciplines. No one discipline is sufficient within itself to bring to bear all of the effort
that is needed. This, then, dictates the need for the team approach. Our work physiology studies at Kodak Park, which started about five years ago, developed from a common need of the Medical Department and the Industrial Engineering Division to better understand the physiological limitations and capabilities of people. The understanding of common problems that has developed between
these two divisions, in itself, almost justifies the effort which has been expended on these
studies. The real reward, of course, is in our growing ability to evaluate and quantify situations
which heretofore, from a job design standpoint, had to remain unknown.

Initially, our investigations were confined solely to the ''effort" or "energy expenditures"
aspect of work. This was natural for several reasons, namely:
1. High effort is more obvious to the observer of the industrial scene and,
therefore, demands more attention.
2. While it is fractionated and scattered, much work has been done and reported by other investigators relative to "'energy expenditure", which is a measure of effort.
3. Instrumentation has been developed such that it is now practical to measure this variable of "energy expenditure" on the industrial scene.
Energy expenditure is measured by the indirect calorimetry method; that is, respiration
and oxygen consumption are the variables which are measured and converted to energy. Combined
with heart rate, these represent the physiological responses which we feel are necessary for accurately assessing high effort industrial jobs.

Physiological measurements in conjunction with time study now provide us with an insight
into industrial job design problems which is not obtainable in any other way. Using criterion
relative to energy expenditure, we can now assess jobs prior to the installation of a new work
standard or job design. We are in a better position to determine in terms of time and energy
what the job requires, the frequency of rest breaks, the necessity of providing auxiliary labor
saving equipment or the need for re-engineering the job completely. In situations where
the manufacturing process is not amenable to change, then the same physiological measurements
help us to select persons with the physical capacity demanded by the process. Most preemployment
medical examinations do not completely provide this information.

This new approach to designing industrial jobs has been successfully employed in many
types of jobs ranging from the handling of containers in a darkroom cold storage area to the
loading of box cars. A most rewarding use of it involved the pre-evaluation of a proposed piece
of production equipment. The work physiology studies indicated that additional materials handling
equipment was necessary if we were to obtain the anticipated increased production. The
nature of this materials handling equipment was such that installation at a later time would have
caused an extensive shutdown with the resultant loss of production.

With the measurement of and utilization of energy expenditure as a factor in job design, we
feel we are just beginning our work physiology studies. Energy expenditure is just one facet of
the problem. Other physiological phenomena of people may be studied so that we can integrate
them into job systems which take advantage of their capabilities and do not aggravate their
limitations. The result will be mutually beneficial to the individual and the company. The
second part of our Human Dimension is Organizational Behavior.

B. Organizational Behavior

I am using this term to refer to the behavior of people in an organizational or industrial setting.
As an area of knowledge, among other things, it refers to the reasons why people work or don't work, decide or don't decide to perform so as to achieve the objectives of their organizations.

If the concept of "Organizational Behavior" seems remote from industrial engineering to you, let me say that an incentive system, or any control system for that matter, is primarily designed to direct and influence the behavior of people towards organizational goals. As industrial engineers we are, it seems, in the business of designing systems to influence, direct and control human behavior, but we've never quite faced up to it in these very words.

The famous Western Electric Hawthorne studies of thirty years ago marked the beginning
of organized research into Organization Behavior. Since that time, studies in industry plus general
behavioral research have yielded information which promises utility to industry.

I think I can summarize the results of this research (and its utility to industrial engineers) this way.

You industrial engineers profess, in effect, a theory of management - a theory of how to organize men, machines, and materials so as to get the best results. The part of this theory which deals with men assumes that the performance of people will be best under situations where they are told exactly
what to do and how to do it, and are rewarded with money in proportion to performance.
Your way of doing business rests on certain behavioral assumptions.

''To put it another way, you are hipdeep in designing systems for influencing behavior and you make almost no use of the collective scientific information about the behavior of man. The assumptions which support your practice are not all wrong; they are just not complete nor up to
date. You need, first, to realize that you are deeply involved in influencing people's work attitudes, second, that you do this based upon certain assumptions, and third, that there is a good deal of information available which would alter and improve these assumptions."

You might assume that under the proper conditions, they will actually find personal satisfaction in
working towards your objectives.


In the short time left, I can only outline the manner in which we at Kodak Park are trying to
answer this challenge. In the first place, we have acquainted ourselves with the research
which bears on the problem. We have tried to integrate this to the best of our ability and reduce
it to the probable effect it may have on our practice. The following specifics are indicated:

1. Job Design

Instead of simply designing operations from the point of view of the optimum technical system, we think there are gains to be made in considering the nature of the jobs which people will do.
The usual industrial engineering criteria for job design stress extremes of task specialization. The consequences tend to be meaningless jobs. That is, jobs in which the individual has difficulty
seeing the relationship of his function to a larger whole. A version of what has been called Job Enlargement is called for. This is not just a matter of adding functions to a job, but adding a set of
functions which will comprise a set of activities leading to accomplishment of a visible objective. The activities making up a job should be examined to see if there has been a tendency to
remove the thinking functions and specialize them in other persons. Taken as a whole, we should endeavor to design jobs such that people have a maximum of control of the variables which
lead to end objectives.

2. Goal Orientation - Information Systems

A natural consequence of the over division of labor has been to focus the attention of individuals on very minute goals such as pieces per hour. We believe that industrial engineers should re-examine their approach to the goal setting function which is, after all, what time study has led to all these
years. People, it seems, do not behave on the job as isolated individuals. Many jobs are parts of a system and depend for success upon a high degree of interdependency of people. We are examining the structuring of goals to see what beneficial effect there is in providing the individual a perception
of his contribution to system goals. This takes the form of specifying job goals in terms of end-results and also in terms of the contribution of job level goals to system goals. Individuals are kept informed of system objectives, current progress of the system and any contemplated changes in objectives.
In effect, they are kept "in the know" about objectives and progress of the unit as well as their own job goals. In effect, we are trying to enlarge the focus of the individual relative to end objectives. By giving his more control through Job Design and overall goal orientation, we think his performance
and personal satisfaction will both increase.

III. Compensation or Incentive Systems
For many years, industrial engineering activity has been closely identified with incentives. The classical incentive approach stresses the closest possible relationship between pay and rate-of-output performance. As any of you who have administered an incentive system know, you have to take the bitter with the better. There are a number of practical problems or dysfunctions associated with incentives. I shall not stress these, but will try to describe the more fundamental problems. If we are to believe the results of behavioral research, people work for the satisfaction of a number of human needs. Only some of these can be satisfied by money. The most serious indictment of classical
incentives is that they have pre-occupied us with money to such an extent that we have largely
overlooked other considerations. Such things as achievement, responsibility, recognition and
work, itself, are satisfactions and sources of motivation in themselves. Our problem, here,
is to retain some monetary incentive, some pay/performance relationship, but not to do it
in such a manner that it is seen as the be-all and end-all of motivation. We believe that
closer attention to Job Design and Goal Orientation, previously mentioned, is one way of
providing a basis for satisfaction in the job. There is nothing in motivational research to indicate that relating rewards such as pay to performance is unsound. How this is done seems to be most important, however. We think that money should be looked upon as an after-the-fact reinforcement, not the primary initial motivator of good performance. In contrast to classical wage incentives, which stress close, short term, hour by hour correlation of pay and performance, the shift from "motivator"
to "reinforcement" may be brought about by extending the time over which pay and performance
are related. In addition, by utilizing longer time periods, performance considerations like quality, versatility and dependability can be considered in terms of pay.

We may close by reviewing the official definition of Industrial Engineering as it appears
on the AIIE Journal: "Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design, improvement, and installation of integrated systems of men, materials and equipment; drawing upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the
principles and methods of engineering analysis and design, to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems."

If we are to believe this definition as a statement of what industrial engineers do, then we must assume that in our practice we do, indeed, draw upon knowledge from the social sciences. (But industrial engineering has not effectively drawn research conclusions or principles from the social or life sciences) . If we are to be designers of integrated systems of "men, materials and equipment," and if the design activity is to be based upon specialized scientific knowledge, then we had better equip ourselves to do so, (this article specifically focuses on)  the social or life sciences.

Thursday, June 23, 2016

Future of Industrial Engineering

The future of industrial engineering / by C.E. Knoeppel. Knoeppel, C. E. (Charles Edward),

Society of industrial engineering, 1920


The Future of Industrial Engineering As An Academic Discipline, J. A. Buzacotta
IIE Transactions
Volume 16, Issue 1, 1984

Thursday, June 16, 2016

Letters of Louis D. Brandeis: Volume II, 1907-1912 - Book Information


Human Engineering magazine was mentioned in the book. Winthrop Talbot was an editor of the magazine.

Also see


Engineering Economic Analysis - Case Studies

Engineering Economic Analysis - Case Studies

Engineering Economic Analysis - Case Studies


An Engineering-Economic Analysis
of Syngas Storage
The authors examined whether an IGCC facility that operates its gasifier continuously but stores the
syngas and produces electricity only when daily prices are high may be more profitable than an
IGCC facility with no syngas storage.
There are currently eight integrated coal gasification / combined cycle electrical turbine (IGCC)
facilities operating worldwide producing about 1.7 GW of electricity from coal or petcoke
feedstock, and in all of these facilities the syngas is used immediately after it is produced. There
are over one hundred coal gasification facilities producing chemical feedstocks, also without
storage. Without storage capabilities, the gasifier must be sized to fit the syngas end-use (such as
a gas turbine or chemicals process) and the operation of the two systems must be coupled.
Stored syngas may be used to produce electricity in gas turbines during periods of peak demand
when produced electricity is most valuable and prices are highest, while operating the gasifier at
the most efficient sustained production rate. Stored syngas may be a means to enhance the
reliability and availability of IGCC power plants, by increasing the availability of syngas during
planned and unplanned outages. Without storage, the coal gasification facility must be sized to
the gas turbine or other facility that uses the gas. Storage allows the two units to be sized and
run separately, thus gaining valuable flexibility. For IGCC designs where the air separation unit
is not fully integrated with the turbine (Farina 1999; Maurstad 2005), adding the capability to
store syngas can allow the gasifier and turbine to be sized and operated independently, thereby
providing valuable flexibility in the way the facility is configured and operated
The goal of this two year research project was to conduct a detailed study of syngas storage
options. The analysts performed an engineering-economic analysis of storage to inform the design of coal
gasification facilities as well as energy policy. The project collected the relevant syngas data
from gasification processes; explored the technical issues of storage such as hydrogen
embrittlement, leakage and energy loss from syngas storage; and performed an engineeringeconomic
analysis of storage options. In a parallel and complementary approach, they analyzed
the benefits and costs of syngas storage options under a variety of scenarios, sampling the
uncertainties in commodity prices, technical options, and regulatory policies.


Additional parking spaces at both existing and new park and ride facilities across West Yorkshire.

Present Value of Benefits: £32.4 million;
Present Value of Costs: £9.9 million;
Net Present Value: £22.5 million; and
Benefit to Cost Ratio: 3.3:1


Engineering Economic Analysis Guide: Liquid Fuels Technologies


Sustainability and Economic Analysis of Propylene Carbonate and Polypropylene Carbonate Production Processes Using CO2 and Propylene Oxide

Energy and Economic Analysis of Heat Recovery from Boiler Exhaust Flue Gas

Updated 19 June 2016,  17 Sep 2012

Wednesday, June 15, 2016

Arduino Essentials - IoT Books Information

My First Arduino - Blog Article

Bought from Amazon
UK  Arduino  Starter Kit with UNO - 62 pounds

You get the Arduino UNO microcontroller intself plus a breadboard and wooden base.
The kit also contains various components including DC motor, LED display, servo motor, potentiometer, temperature sensor, and a very generous length of USB power cable; in addition to various diodes, resistors, filters, LED etc.

The starter kit comes with a projects book.  This contains the set-up instructions; how to install the software and connect to your Arduino; a primer in electronics and fifteen projects to try.


Programming the Photon: Getting Started with the Internet of Things

Christopher Rush
McGraw Hill Professional, 08-Apr-2016 - Technology & Engineering - 240 pages

Explore the Internet of Things and build useful, functioning Photon projects

Quickly learn to construct your own electronics devices and control them over the Internet with help from this DIY guide. Programming the Photon: Getting Started with the Internet of Things features clear explanations and step-by-step examples that use inexpensive, easy-to-find components. Discover how to connect to Wi-Fi networks, attach hardware to I/O ports, write custom programs, and work from the cloud. You will learn how to troubleshoot and tweak your Photon creations—even interface with social media sites!

· Set up your Photon board and connect to the Particle cloud

· Start constructing and programming custom IoT projects

· Learn the syntax of both the C and Arduino languages

· Incorporate switches, sensors, and other input devices

· Control hardware through the Photon’s outputs

· Control your creations through the Internet

· Add functions with Particle shields and add-on boards

· Link real-time data to your board via the IFTTT Web Service

· Integrate with websites—Facebook, Twitter, Gmail, and more!

Make: Action: Movement, Light, and Sound with Arduino and Raspberry Pi

Simon Monk
Maker Media, Inc., 04-Feb-2016 - Technology & Engineering - 360 pages

Beginning with the basics and moving gradually to greater challenges, this book takes you step-by-step through experiments and projects that show you how to make your Arduino or Raspberry Pi create and control movement, light, and sound. In other words: action!

The Arduino is a simple microcontroller with an easy-to-learn programming environment, while the Raspberry Pi is a tiny Linux-based computer. This book clearly explains the differences between the Arduino and Raspberry Pi, when to use them, and to which purposes each are best suited.

Using these widely available and inexpensive platforms, you'll learn to control LEDs, motors of various types, solenoids, AC (alternating current) devices, heaters, coolers, displays, and sound. You'll even discover how to monitor and control these devices over the Internet. Working with solderless breadboards, you'll get up and running quickly, learning how to make projects that are as fun as they are informative. In Make: Action, you'll learn to:

Build a can crusher using a linear actuator with your Arduino
Have an Arduino water your plants
Build a personal traffic signal using LEDs
Make a random balloon popper with Arduino
Cool down your beverages with a thermostatic drink cooler you build yourself
Understand and use the PID control algorithm
Use Raspberry Pi to create a puppet dance party that moves to your tweets!

Getting Started with Arduino Wiring for Windows 10 IoT Core

Agus Kurniawan
PE Press, 24-Jan-2016

If you have experiences in Arduino development using Sketch program, your Sketch program can run on Raspberry Pi 2 with Windows 10 IoT Core. This book helps you get started with Arduino Wiring development using Visual Studio 2015. The following is highlight topics in this book:

* Setting Up Development Environment

* Digital I/O

* Serial Communication

* Analog I/O

* Working with I2C/TWI Protocol

* Working with SPI Protocol

Arduino Essentials

Francis Perea
Packt Publishing Ltd, 24-Feb-2015 -  206 pages

If you are a hobbyist who wants to develop projects based on microcontroller platforms, then this book based Arduino platform will be useful. For Internet of Things projects, this platform is being recommended.


Beginning Arduino

Michael McRoberts
Apress, 17-Sep-2013 - Technology & Engineering - 424 pages

Want to light up a display? Control a touch screen? Program a robot? The Arduino is a microcontroller board that can help you do all of these things, plus nearly anything you can dream up. Even better, it's inexpensive and, with the help of Beginning Arduino, Second Edition, easy to learn.

In Beginning Arduino, Second Edition, you will learn all about the popular Arduino by working your way through a set of 50 cool projects. You'll progress from a complete Arduino beginner to intermediate Arduino and electronic skills and the confidence to create your own amazing projects. You'll also learn about the newest Arduino boards like the Uno and the Leonardo along the way. Absolutely no experience in programming or electronics required!

Each project is designed to build upon the knowledge learned in earlier projects and to further your knowledge of Arduino programming and electronics. By the end of the book you will be able to create your own projects confidently and with creativity. You'll learn about:

Controlling LEDs Displaying text and graphics on LCD displays Making a line-following robot Using digital pressure sensors Reading and writing data to SD cards Connecting your Arduino to the Internet

Getting Started with Arduino

Massimo Banzi
Co-founder of the Arduino project
"O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 13-Sep-2011 - Computers - 118 pages

Arduino is the open-source electronics prototyping platform that’s taken the design and hobbyist world by storm. This thorough introduction, updated for Arduino 1.0, gives you lots of ideas for projects and helps you work with them right away. From getting organized to putting the final touches on your prototype, all the information you need is here!

Inside, you’ll learn about:

Interaction design and physical computing
The Arduino hardware and software development environment
Basics of electricity and electronics
Prototyping on a solderless breadboard
Drawing a schematic diagram
Getting started with Arduino is a snap. To use the introductory examples in this guide, all you need an Arduino Uno or earlier model, along with USB A-B cable and an LED. The easy-to-use Arduino development environment is free to download.

Join hundreds of thousands of hobbyists who have discovered this incredible (and educational) platform. Written by the co-founder of the Arduino project, Getting Started with Arduino gets you in on all the fun!

Beginning Arduino Programming

Brian Evans
Apress, 17-Oct-2011 - Computers - 272 pages

Beginning Arduino Programming allows you to quickly and intuitively develop your programming skills through sketching in code. This clear introduction provides you with an understanding of the basic framework for developing Arduino code, including the structure, syntax, functions, and libraries needed to create future projects. You will also learn how to program your Arduino interface board to sense the physical world, to control light, movement, and sound, and to create objects with interesting behavior.
With Beginning Arduino Programming, you'll get the knowledge you need to master the fundamental aspects of writing code on the Arduino platform, even if you have never before written code. It will have you ready to take the next step: to explore new project ideas, new kinds of hardware, contribute back to the open source community, and even take on more programming languages.

What you’ll learn Start programming quickly with Arduino sketches. Write code that interacts with devices, such as LEDs, sensors, and motors. Work with loops, functions, randomness, and delays in your Arduino projects. Develop a style of writing code that reflects your individuality. Use many of the Arduino libraries to control even more devices. Read from RFID readers, write data to SD memory cards, and connect to the Internet using Ethernet. Who this book is for
This book is for all Arduino board users who want to learn to program the Arduino board, regardless of hardware version or which devices are connected to the board. You do not need to have programmed before, but if you have, then you'll learn how to apply core coding features in the Arduino context.

Table of Contents Getting Started Sketching in Code Working With Variables Making Decisions Digital Ins and Outs Analog in, Analog out Functions, Time, and Interrupts Arrays for Arduino Writing New Functions for Arduino Arduino Libraries Arduino Hardware 10 Where to Go from Here? Appendix A: Common Circuits Appendix B: Arduino Math

Arduino Cookbook

Michael Margolis
"O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 24-Mar-2011 - Computers - 662 pages

Create your own toys, remote controllers, alarms, detectors, robots, and many other projects with the Arduino device. This simple microcontroller board lets artists and designers build a variety of amazing objects and prototypes that interact with the physical world. With this cookbook you can dive right in and experiment with more than a hundred tips and techniques, no matter what your skill level is.

The recipes in this book provide solutions for most common problems and questions Arduino users have, including everything from programming fundamentals to working with sensors, motors, lights, and sound, or communicating over wired and wireless networks. You'll find the examples and advice you need to begin, expand, and enhance your projects right away.

Get to know the Arduino development environment
Understand the core elements of the Arduino programming language
Use common output devices for light, motion, and sound
Interact with almost any device that has a remote control
Learn techniques for handling time delays and time measurement
Use simple ways to transfer digital information from sensors to the Arduino device
Create complex projects that incorporate shields and external modules
Use and modify existing Arduino libraries, and learn how to create your own

Make: Arduino Bots and Gadgets: Six Embedded Projects with Open Source Hardware and Software
Tero Karvinen, Kimmo Karvinen

"O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 17-Mar-2011 - Computers - 296 pages

Want to build your own robots, turn your ideas into prototypes, control devices with a computer, or make your own cell phone applications? It's a snap with this book and the Arduino open source electronic prototyping platform. Get started with six fun projects and achieve impressive results quickly.

Gain the know-how and experience to invent your own cool gadgets.

With Arduino, building your own embedded gadgets is easy, even for beginners. Embedded systems are everywhere—inside cars, children’s toys, and mobile phones. This book will teach you the basics of embedded systems and help you build your first gadget in just a few days. Each learn-as-you-build project that follows will add to your knowledge and skills.

Experiment with Arduino, the popular microcontroller board
Build robots and electronic projects with easy-to-follow instructions
Turn your ideas into working physical prototypes
Use Android phones as remote controls in your projects
Work with an uncomplicated programming language created for artists, designers, and hobbyists
Get everyone involved, with projects that even beginners can build

Arduino Microcontroller Processing for Everyone!

Steven F. Barrett
Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2010 - Computers - 325 pages

This book is about the Arduino microcontroller and the Arduino concept. The visionary Arduino team of Massimo Banzi, David Cuartielles, Tom Igoe, Gianluca Martino, and David Mellis launched a new innovation in microcontroller hardware in 2005, the concept of open source hardware. Their approach was to openly share details of microcontroller-based hardware design platforms to stimulate the sharing of ideas and promote innovation. This concept has been popular in the software world for many years. This book is intended for a wide variety of audiences including students of the fine arts, middle and senior high school students, engineering design students, and practicing scientists and engineers. To meet this wide audience, the book has been divided into sections to satisfy the need of each reader. The book contains many software and hardware examples to assist the reader in developing a wide variety of systems. For the examples, the Arduino Duemilanove and the Atmel ATmega328 is employed as the target processor.Table of Contents: Getting Started / Programming / Embedded Systems Design / Serial Communication Subsystem / Analog to Digital Conversion (ADC) / Interrupt Subsystem / Timing Subsystem / Atmel AVR Operating Parameters and Interfacing.

Updated 17 June 2016,  20 April 2016