Monday, February 19, 2018

Industry 4.0 - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)


Prof, Dariusz Plinta edited a  book collection of articles, "Advanced Industrial Engineering: Industry 4.0" and it is published by in Bielsko-Biała 2016.

He indicates that Advanced Industrial Engineering (AIE) is a major direction of current and future
Industrial engineering development in line with technological developments taking place in Europe.  AIE arises from the productivity assessment and improvement  needs of applying new innovative technologies to create better position of production companies in global and knowledge-based society. Productivity solutions for the evolving industry need a new perspective and the collection of articles in an attempt to provide the early inputs.

Industry 4.0 is a concept which is being developed very intensively in Europe especially in industrial advanced countries and more and more of its components are being developed and implemented now in production systems.  Changes are taking place in  different areas of organization's operations, with the impetus for change coming from  IT developments. The redesign of production and other engineering processes and products are driving innovation (new products and services) and improvements in productivity and quality. Therefore, the industrial revolution termed Industry 4.0  provides opportunities for companies to innovate both new products and processes. Every managers of engineering company has to notice that  some companies have already introduced them in market.

Industry 4.0 Concept




The Industry 4.0 concept was presented in 2011.  In the first publications, the most important new
 technological developments that were responsible for the emergence of revolutionary changes in engineering processes and products  were indicated.  These are:

a) Autonomous Robots,
b) Simulations and Forecasting Techniques
c) Vertical/Horizontal Software Integration
d) Industrial Internet of Things – IoT
e) Direct communication between machines
f) Internet of Services
g) Big data and analytics
h) Innovative methods of collecting and processing large amounts of data, including
the use of potential activities in the cloud (Clouds)
i) Additive Manufacturing
j) Augmented Reality – AR
k) Virtual Reality – VR
l) Cyber-Physical Systems – CPS
m) Digital Twin
n) Artificial Intelligence,
o) Neural Networks
p) Cybersecurity
q) Mass Customization

There technologies have to be incorporated into new software systems used for designing, testing,
process planning, manufacturing and assembly.

The evolution of production systems  follows the development of innovative technology and its direct environment, like machines, devices, methods and tools aiding the work related to preparing technical documentation, including description of product models, processes and production resources. The evolution or innovation in production systems provides  introduction of shorter production cycles, new products and manufacturing processes development, minimization of the supplies level, more efficient logistics, and the usage of effective and innovative ideas of production realization.

The main types of software used in production enterprises are linked in PLM solutions, which control different parts of the manufacturing cycle. CAD systems define what will be produced, Manufacturing Process Management (MPM) defines how it will be manufactured, ERP informs when and where it is created, whereas MES provides shop floor control and simultaneously manufacturing feedback. The stored information generally aids communication and improves making decisions, but also removes human errors from the design and the manufacturing process.

More detailed notes on Each Technology are presented as separate notes.


c) Vertical/Horizontal Software Integration
d) Industrial Internet of Things – IoT
e) Direct communication between machines
f) Internet of Services
g) Big data and analytics
h) Innovative methods of collecting and processing large amounts of data, including
the use of potential activities in the cloud (Clouds)
i) Additive Manufacturing
j) Augmented Reality – AR
k) Virtual Reality – VR
l) Cyber-Physical Systems – CPS
m) Digital Twin
n) Artificial Intelligence,
o) Neural Networks
p) Cybersecurity
q) Mass Customization



BCG - BUILDING BLOCKS OF INDUSTRY 4.0 -  NINE TECHNOLOGIES


In BCG's view nine  technology trends form the building blocks of Industry 4.0.

BIG DATA AND ANALYTICS

The collection and comprehensive evaluation of data from many different sources— Various machines, equipment, material handling trucks and communication devices, and business process systems will become provide significant extra support to increse revenues and decrease costs by supporting  real-time decision making as well as finding the best ways of doing things.

AUTONOMOUS ROBOTS

Robots are becoming more autonomous and mobile as their ability to work safely side by side with humans is increasing. Robots learning process is also changing with the developments in machine learning theory and practice. The robots are also being made available at lower and lower prices with  greater range of capabilities than those used in manufacturing today. Hence robotization of manufacturing is occurring.

SIMULATION

Simulations can be used more extensively in plant operations by feeding  real-time data and experimenting on the  virtual model that mirrors the physical world. The model can include machines, products, and humans. This will make possible optimization the machine settings very quickly even  for the next product in line thus driving down machine setup times. The quality is also improved as root causes can be eliminated as identification can be done very quickly on the simulated model.



THE INDUSTRIAL INTERNET OF THINGS

Industrial Internet of Things (IIOT) consists of connections between devices both consumer and production that can pass on information and instruction between themselves.  This will allow field devices to communicate and interact both with one another and with more centralized controllers, as necessary. As the processing of information can be done very fast based on fast communication without human intervention, real time responses are possible minimizing waste and increasing optimum working conditions. The IIOT can facilitate decentralize analytics and decision making and also allow centralized analytics and decision making.

HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL SYSTEM INTEGRATION

The integration capability provided by communication, analysis and action technologies will make companies, departments, functions, and capabilities much more cohesive. The cross-company, universal data-integration networks evolve and they enable automated value chains also.

CYBERSECURITY

There are developments in security technologies that can assure users that  the increased connectivity and use of standard communications protocols that come with Industry 4.0 does not increase the risk significantly. The risk dimension is recognized by the Industry 4.0 proponents and research and engineering efforts are being made to reduce the threats.

THE CLOUD

Development in clould storage and application capabilities are providing computing facility at a less and less cost to users. Users can utlize analytics services on vast data as they pay for the facility on a use basis only. The shared facility provides them service as well as security of data. The performance of cloud technologies is improving providing reaction times of just several milliseconds. As a result, machine data and functionality are being be deployed to the cloud. Successes of pioneer companies in this environment,  enables  more organizations to take up data-driven services for production systems.

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

Companies have just begun to adopt additive manufacturing ( 3-D printing). It became popular in preparing prototypes and some companies started producing even regualr production components. With Industry 4.0, where designs can be transferred to additive manufacturing devices anywhere in teh world,  these additive-manufacturing methods will be more widely used to produce small batches of customized products. Spare parts etc. can be made on demand through additive manufacturing at the users premises by the user.

AUGMENTED REALITY

Augmented-reality-based systems can be used to send repair instructions and provide practice to technicians over mobile devices. These systems are currently in their infancy. But their potential is high to provide workers with real-time information to improve decision making and work procedures thus providing faster responses to various unforeseen events in engineering systems. Waiting for an expert or knowledgeable technician to come will come down as local technicians can be trained very quick using augmented reality systems as and when the need arises.


Industrial engineers have to understand each of the technologies that are forming part of the Industry 4.0 revolution. They have to understand that engineering potential and also productivity potential. In diverse combinations, they may be more effective than when they are used alone. Research needs to be done industrial engineers to understand their productivity potential and productivity pathways related to each technology and various bundles. Then only, they can carry out systematic productivity engineering and management. In the coming posts, each technology will be explained from the perspective of industrial engineering.

https://www.bcg.com/capabilities/operations/embracing-industry-4.0-rediscovering-growth.aspx (Accessed on 9 January 2018)

https://www.bcg.com/en-in/publications/2015/engineered_products_project_business_industry_4_future_productivity_growth_manufacturing_industries.aspx  (Visited on 9 January 2018)


Chapter of the Blog Book - Industrial Engineering 4.0 - IE in the Era of Industry 4.0 - Blog Book


Previous Chapter - Introduction to Industrial Engineering 4.0


Next Chapter - Autonomous Robots - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)


Updated 2018 - 20 February 2018,  8 January 2018







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